is a widespread outage in the Bonneville Power Administration's
system in the Pacific Northwest; power plants from British Columbia
and Washington to Oregon, Idaho, and Utah and Montana affected.
York City experiences a blackout on one network area.
13: New York City experiences a blackout in four network
areas, caused by electric equipment failures. Midtown Manhattan
hit hard. ^_top
engineers in the Northeast complete a massive, 400-mile-long triple
conductor line that carries an unprecedented 345-kilovolts of electricity.
Swiftly this line becomes a primary source of power for dozens of
companies, serving towns and cities from the Great Lakes to the
Atlantic Ocean. New York City and suburban Westchester County together
constitute the largest users. ^_top
most of Iowa and portions of five other midwestern statesare affected
by a blackout; service is restored in only 2.5 hours and the blackout
affected only 2 million people. ^_top
a tornado hits in Indiana and affects the Upper Mississippi pool;
from Indiana, the blackout extended to St. Louis and then to Iowa.
approximately 80,000-square miles of the Northeast, a total of eight
states, falls into darkness, as the triple conductor line fails.
Begins with a faulty relay in Canada Toronto, the first city afflicted
by the blackout, goes dark at 5:15pm. Rochester follows at 5:18pm,
then Boston at 5:21pm. New York, finally, loses power at 5:28pm.
The failure affects four million homes in the metropolitan area,
and leaves between 600,000 and 800,000 people stranded in the city's
subway system. Late in the evening, around 11pm, President Lyndon
Johnson calls New York Mayor Robert Wagner to offer assistance.
"Like a pinched aorta," journalist Theodore White later wrote, the
blackout "caused an entire civilization to flicker with it." By
midnight, more than 90 percent of subway passengers are freed. By
4:44am the next day, power is restored to Manhattan. ^_top
approximately one million persons in parts of Texas, New Mexico,
and Mexico are affected by a power failure in the El Paso area;
occured at 8:02pm and lasted for up to 2 hours.
Power Pool (NYPP); formed; in Feb. 1970 it begins to coordinate
power flow. ^_top
Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC) established. ^_top
Electric Reliability Council (NERC) formed.
Act of 1970 sets standards for generating plant emissions. Environmental
Protection Agency formed in the same year.
in the afternoon there were three near-simultaneous outages in New
York State; the New York Power Pool Center weathered the crisis
with a minimum of problems; brief cutoff of power to the 200,000
customers of the Long Island Lighting Company.
of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), led by Middle Eastern member
nations, enacts the first of a series of price hikes on oil exports
to Western countries and declares an oil embargo against the Unites
States and The Netherlands. This marks the beginning of the "energy
crisis" of the 1970s, in which the price of crude oil rose
from $3 to $30 a barrel between 1973 and 1980.
in electricity sales since 1946; Con Edison cannot pay dividend
to shareholders. ^_top
one million people in 85 percent of Utah, plus southerwestern Wyoming,
suffered no power from between 1.5 to 6 hours. Cause is a relay
that malfunctioned in the switchyard of a Naughton generating plant
near Kemmerer, Wyoming, according to Utah Power and Light Company.
The incident does not receive wide press attention.
13 &14 -
On August 13, 1977, New York City suffered a massive blackout. All
five boroughs as well as areas in the northern suburbs of Westchester
County were plunged into darkness as lightning downed major transmission
power lines supplying power to the metropolitan area. While many
dealt with the blackout in a peaceful and neighborly fashion, a
number of communities erupted in violence. Looters broke into stores,
taking merchandise, and destroying local businesses. In place of
the evening glow ordinarily produced by the city's abundant electrical
lighting, fires lighted the darkened skyline, leaving charred remnants
of once lively neighborhoods. Within the short span of two days,
police had arrested 3,766 looters and the city had suffered an economic
blow that one estimate placed at more than $300 million. Unlike
the 1965 blackout, when the lights went out in 1977 the most distressed
neighborhoods of the City endured what Time magazine called "A Night
of Terror." ^_top
of Energy formed in the same year. ^_top
Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) encourages conservation and the
use of alternative energy sources in power generation, thereby removing
utility monopoly over generation. In the same year the Supreme Court
affirms the ultimate authority of FERC in establish rates.
Island nuclear reactor incident. ^_top